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mardi 26 mai 2015

ASAΓ GER USEKKIL AWEZLAN AZENZAΓ D USEKKIL AΓEZFAN AGGAΓ : LE SYSTÈME DE TRANSCRIPTION YURA S TEQVAYLIT‏. CONTRIBUTION SAKINA AIT AHMED

26/05/2015 - 22:04

Akken i s yenna Lionel Galand deg useggas 1953 : Wi zṛan ma mači d asaɣ ger isekkilen iwezlanen d isekkilen iɣezfanen ara d isfehmen akken iwata, amek ara naru tamaziɣt.


ASAΓ GER USEKKIL AWEZLAN AZENZAΓ D USEKKIL AΓEZFAN AGGAΓ : Le système de transcription yura s teqvaylit‏. CONTRIBUTION SAKINA AIT AHMED
Ma yela d tutlayt taqvaylit, ivan lan isekkilen iwumi asaɣ “corrélation” ger usekkil awezlan azenzaɣ “spirant”, d usekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ “occlusif”, iveggen d s tin n tusna, asekkil azenzaɣ ilaq ad iţwaru s yiwen usekkil , ma yella d asekkil aggaɣ ilaq ad iţwaru s sin isekkilen 
Ihi, ad neɛreḍ ad t id nesken deg ayen ara d itevɛen. Am akka, tutlayt taqvaylit tevna γef tanmegla “opposition” ger usekkil awezlan azenzaγ “spirant” d usekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ “occlusif”. Di tazwara, ad d nelhu d isekkilen : 
/v/ /bb/- /p/- /d/ /dd/ - /t/ /tt/- /ţ/ /ţţ/- /k/ /kk/- /g//gg/ 

1- Tanmegla ger isekkilen : /b/ /bb/ /v/ /p/ 

Acḥal ayagi neţţaru asekkil awezlan azenzaɣ /b/ ma d asekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ /bb/. Maca mara nhedder nesusruy “employer” imesli /v/ 
Diɣen asekkil awezlan /v/ ur yeţţemgarad ara d usekkil aɣezfan /vv/, acku ur yella ara di teqvaylit. 
Maca, imi tusna n tutlayin mači d tusna tufrint “exacte”, iwakken ad yishil umeslay d tira s teqvaylit, ilaq kan sya n tusawent ad neţţaru asekkil awezlan azenzaɣ /v/ ma d asekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ /bb/ : 
sverdeɛ /bberdeɛ ; iviw/ebbi ; vurebbu/vururu 
yebbi d tiqcert n uɣrum 
ɣurwat ad tefγem a y imeẓyanen, ad kwen yeč vururu 
Tasureft “exception” : asekkil awezlan /b/ mara yili zdat usekkil /m/ mazal it d aggaɣ : tambult 

Asekkil /p/ ur yeṭuqet ara, lant tinḍiwa “variantes” di kra n aẓiyen “régions”.Ma yella di Vgayet sexdamen kan /w/ : tawwurt ; yewwi t 
/tawwurt/tappurt/tabburt/taggurt 
/yewweḍ/yepweḍ /yebbw eḍ/ yeggeḍ 
/lemwarva//lempwarva/ lembwarva/ 
/emwiwel/empwiwel/ embwiwel/ 
/n wexam/pwexam/bbwexam/w-wexam/ 
/n weltma/pweltma/bbweltma/ 
anwa wa/ampawa/ambwawa/ 
awalen i d newwi sɣur tefrensist : apiki ;apaki 

2- Tanmegla ger /d/ /dd/ /t/ tt/ 

ḥader/aḥeddad ; adu/ddu ; udem/eddem 
udaɣ-t s uɛekkaz 
yeddem agelzim γef tuyat is 
Tasureft : asekkil awezlan /d/ mara yili zdat isekkilen /l/ neγ /n/ mazal it d aggaγ : amendayer, aldun, anda, 
Diγen ilaq ad nemsefham ma yella ad nkemel ad neţţaru /d/ asekkil aggaγ yeţţemgaraden d usekkil /n/ s yiwen neγ s sin isekkilen /dd/ . (iruḥ d - iruḥ n). Ma yela neţkemil s yiwen usekkil ilaq ad neg tasureft akken ad d nesken yemxalaf d umesli azenzaγ /d/ (d argaz) 

3- Tanmegla ger isekkilen /t/ /tt/ / /ţ/ /ţţ/ 

ehtuti/ettutti , tarwa/ttutegga 
axam ik yehtuti 
yettutti-d ersas d avruri 
Asekkil aγezfan yela dima deg urmir usid “aoriste intensif” 
ifettel ; yettewttew ; yettuttuy/ neqqar diɣen : yeţtuttuy 
Tasureft : asekkil awezlan /t/ mara yili zdat isekkilen /l/ neγ /n/ mazal it d aggaγ : tamelalt, taqjunt 
Asekkil /t/ d amasay “porteur” n wunti “féminin” 

4- Tanmegla ger isekkilen : /k/ /kk/ /g/ /gg/ : 

eks ekkes ; ak akka ; ekmer ekker 
Σli n tevlavalt, yeksan aqḍar s tmelalt 
aḥviv d aḥviv mi tekmer, mači di tizi n liser 
Tasureft : asekkil awezlan /k/ mara yili zdat usekkil /ḥ/ eḥku ; /f/ fak ; /c/ aveckiḍ ; /ɛ/ eɛkef ; /r/ erkeḍ ; /s/ esker ; /v/ ivki ; /n / enkeẓ, mazal it d aggaγ : 

gma yegguma ; igig iggi “ : engi neggi ( urmid usid). 
ur ḥemleγ gma ur ḥemleγ wi ara t iwten 
d averkan am yiggi n uḥriq 
Tasureft : asekkil awezlan /g/ mara yili zdat usekkil /v/ evges ; /ɛ/ eɛgez ; /r/ ergel ; /j/ ejgugel mazal it d aggaγ : 

5- Tanmegla ger isekkilen imesli ger yiles d tgerjumt : /kw/ /kkw/ ; /gw / /ggw/ ; /bw/ /bbw/ ;/ɣw/ /ɣɣw/. /qw/ /qqw 

Ayen iwumi qqaren s tefrensist “vélarisées” 
Lan wid, tikwal i t sexdamen, tikwal ala 
ek(w)vel, lemk(w)eb ; ek(w)mer /ekk(w)erṭeṭi ; ekk(w)ernenni 
lan imekwan i deg ur t sexdamen ara, qqaren : ekvel ; lemkeb ; ekmer ; ekkerṭeṭi ; ekkernenni 
Agwi uggwi ; agwni taggwent ; tagwest egg wet 
Lan imekwan i deg qqaren yugwem d aman, llan diɣen wid yeqqaren /yugem d aman
Kra n wawalen ekkan-d seg uzar aqvur /w/ : /aweḍ/aggwaḍ ; awi/aggway ; erwel/reggwel 

6- Tanmegla ger isekkilen /bw/ /bbw/ 

embwiwel (amalay “masc.) empwiwel (unti “fém”.) 
Asekkil aγezfan yekka d deg wazar aqvur /w/ : /yewwi/yebbw i/yeggw i/ ; ɣebbw el/ɣewwel ; cebbwel/cewwel, cwal 
Deg umḍiq n Vgayet mazal iten qqaren kan yewwa, yewwi 

7- Tamengla ger Isekkilen /ɣw/ /ɣɣw/qqw 

Lan yemḍiqen i yesexdamen ɣw/ /ɣɣw/qqw, llan wiyad ala 
abeɣ(w)li, aɣ(w)bel ; taɣ(w)ect ; eɣ(w)ze ; iɣ(w) zeṛ/ iɣezṛan . 
Amyag “verbe” ; evɣeḍ /yebɣeḍ (umir) ibeɣɣeḍ/ibeqqeḍ (umir usid) 
Ma d amyag uɣal : yuɣal (umir) iteqqwel/yeţţuɣal (umir usid) 

8- Tanmegla ger isekkilen : /qw/ /qqw/ 

sqw erqwer/eqw ejqwej/taqweddimt - / sqerqer/eqejqej/taqeddimt 
Ar tagrayt “conclusion” : ama d wid i t yesexdamen tikwal, ama d wid ur t nesexdam ara maḍi, ayagi nezmer ad d nini yusa d kan d amawan (marginal). Iwakken ad tifsus tira n teqvaylit, nezmer ma yela nevγa, ad as nevru sya d tusawent. 

9- Tanmegla ger isekkilen /ţ/ /ţţ/ /č/ /ǧ/ / 

Asekkil awezlan /ţ/ : tideţ ; tabugatuţ ; tayeţ ;tamerkantiţ 
Asekkil aγezfan /ţţ/ : yeṭuqet deg imyagen “verbes” i neseftay “conjuguer” d urmir usid “ aoriste intensif” d tigawt “action” ama tezga : iţţafeg ; ama d tavawt “négation” : ur iţţafeg ara ; 
yeţţawi ; yeţţakwer , yeţţargu. 
Di Vgayet d kra n tutlayin n tmaziγt n Maroc ur semrasen ara asekkil /ţ/ qqaren :yettawi, yettargu ; yettakwer 
Lan wid i yesexdamen kan asekkil /ţ/ ,deg umkan n /t/ : ad ţruḥed ; d ţagi d ţaxamt 
Isekkilen /č/ /ǧ/ lan d war asaɣ “hors corrélation”. Ihi imi akka, iwakken ur neṣaẓay ara tira ad ten naru s yiwen usekkil 
eǧ ; teǧel ; ajeǧig ; eč ; ečar ”, ajeǧiḍ 
cebbeḥ/yeččebbiḥ ; cud/yeččuddu ; cuf/yeččufu . 
Tasureft : Maca deg umir usid ad ten neţţaru s sin isekkilen /ţţ/ /čč/ 
yewwi yas d ajeǧig n tayri 
aksum nni yeča t wemcic 
yeččufu yas qendur ar tagara ixedeɛ it 
Tasureft : aseɣ ger usekkil awezlan /ţ/ d uɣezfan /ţţ/ yella kan deg umir usid 
aseɣ ger usekkil awezlan /č/ d uɣezfan /čč/ yella kan deg umir usid. 

10- Tanmengla ger isekkilen : /ž / 

asekkil /ž/ yella deg wawal averani : Lžayer/Lzayer 
ivzeg/ivezzeg/ivežžeg/iţţazeg/ ; 
wezil/wežil/ iţţiwzil ; 
agezam/ agežam ; agezar/agežar 
yegzem/igezzem/igežžem “umir usid” 
yegzer/igezzer /igežžer 
Asekkil agi /ž/ ur yeṭuqet ara nezmer ad d nini de wer asaɣ. Asekkil agi /ž/yella d tanḍa “variante” n /z/. I tdamsa n tutlayt nezmer ad t nekkes 

Isekkilen yelan d war asaɣ 

Ulac asaɣ ger usekkil awezlan azenzaɣ d usekkil aɣezfan aggaɣ 
isekkilen n tinzert : m/n 
amcic mimi tamumuct, amud amaddaz/amudduz ; 
inu ; ini, tanina tindi, endef 
asekkil ucenfir d tuɣmest /f/ : 
tafrara ; afus, ifis, tifest efser ; efsex ;afwad, afexar ; 
asekkil asmami “vibrant” /r/ 
tardast, erfu ; rfufen ;targit, regged ;ergem ; ergel ; erhen ; 
asekkil /l/ 
ili ; tili ; alen ; ul ; tila ; ulac ;alecac ; tililac ; taluft ; alag ; lejlej ; elmed ; alemsir ; alamaḍ ; ilni ; ilindi 
asekkil /q/ 
eqlec ;aqelmun ; aqmamas ; amequn ; iqanan ; qerdec ; taqesult ;aqwir ; tiqit ; sqaqi ; qazem 
Ar tagara, i lmend n tdamsa n tutlayt taqvaylit isekkilen agi i yelan d wer asaɣ nezmer ad ten naru kan s yiwen usekkil. 

Tufayin “emphatiques “lant d war asaɣ 
isekkilen /ḍ/ /ṭ/ 
aḍiḥan ; ḍil ; aḍen ; anemḍer ; eṭer ; eṭes ; taḍwiqt 
asekkil /ṛ/ 
aṛavuz /ṛuc ; taṛiṛuct ; eṛceḥ ; iṛideḥ ; aɣṛum ; aqeṛu ; eţaṛ ; exṛev ; ečaṛ ; ẓeṛ ; aɛeṛvun ; eɛṛeḍ 

Tasureft :mara yili yenteḍ ɣer isekkilen am :/ɣ/ ; /q/, /ḍ/, /x/, /ḥ/, /ţ /ǧ/, /č/ ;/ẓ/, asekkil / ṛ/ ivan yured “prévisible’’ . Ihi , iwakken ad tifsus tira nezmer ad nemsefham akken ad nekkes taneqiṭ dddaw /r/mara yili erif isekkilen agi 
asekkil /ṣ / 
tuṣḍa ; taṣefayt ; aṣefṣaf “peuplier”ṣekkek ; ṣelan ; aṣenduḥ ; ṣenṭi, aṣerṣir ; aṣurdi 
asekkil /ẓ/ 
tilemẓit, eẓu ; aẓ ; tiẓeṭ ; eẓḍ ; iẓḍi ; aẓeṭa, tazazaṭ : eẓḍeḥ ; eẓeg ; 
asaɣ ger usekkil awezlan d uɣezfan ufay war yeli, ad ten ne ţţaru kan s yiwen usekkil. 

Xas ulama, ilaq vnadem ad iḥezev deg ayen yeɛnan tagmi tusnit “recherche scientifique” yeţţusensen “appliquée” i tutlayin, maca ayen ivanen , iqvayliyen n Vgayet zvan “résister” akken iwata mgal asekcem n isekkilen agi ufayen. Nezmer ad d nini ggeten deg sen wid i d yekkan si taɛravt am /ḍ/ /ṭ/ 

AGZUL “Résumé” 

1) Isekkilen iwezlan izenzaɣen “spirants” ad ten neţţaru s yiwen usekkil ma yella d iɣezfanen aggaɣen “occlusifs”ad ten neţţaru s sin isekkilen 
2) Isekkilen i yelan war asaɣ ad ten neţţaru kan s yiwen usekkil 
3)Ma d isekkilen ufayen lan wid yelan di teqvaylit, am ṣ ẓ ; lan wid i d yekkan si taɛravt am /ḍ/ /ṭ/, cwit cwit eṭfen amkan n usekkil /t/ i sexdamen di Vgayet 

Sakina AIT AHMED 
Linguiste/Ecrivaine

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